This deliverable of the FP7 BioFresh project investigates the ecosystem services approach (ESA) within a freshwater context. Specifically, four freshwater species and habitats (i.e. the beaver, peatlands, floodplains and lakes) are looked at in more depth to assess the practical application of the ESA at several scales. Following an extensive literature review, we identified the status quo of current research on the relationships between freshwater biodiversity, the provision of ecosystem services (ESS) and their integration into the ESA (chapter 2) as well as the knowledge gaps necessitating further research. Deliverable 6.4 responds to the identified need to account for the role of the cultural, economic and policy contexts in which ecosystem service assessments occur. In doing so, this report answers the question of how these contextual factors influence the holistic application of the ESA and impact the conservation of freshwater species and habitats.